Chess is a game of skill for two players. It is played on a chessboard of 64
squares (8 x 8) coloured alternately light and dark. The board is placed between
the players so that each has a light coloured square in the right-hand corner.
Both sides have EIGHT PIECES and EIGHT PAWNS, set out initially as shown,
each queen on the square of her own colour.
The object of the game is to capture (checkmate) the opponent's king.
The players toss for colour, then move in turn White always starting. The
moves of the different men are:
King: One square in any direction
Queen: Any number of squares in a straight line (i.e., and extension of
the king's move).
Rook or Castle: Any number of squares forward, backward or sideways.
Bishop: Any number of squares diagonally. A bishop always stays the
square of one colour.
Knight: The knight's move is a combination of one square forward or
backward then two squares sideways, or one square sideways then two squares
forward or backward. Notice that the knight always moves to square of the
opposite colour to the one on which it stands.
Pawn: One square straight forward only, with and option of two squares on
its first move. A pawn on reaching the end rank is at once promoted to a piece
(other than a king) of the player's choice, usually a queen as this is the
strongest piece. Thus it is possible, though unusual, to have several queens on
the board at the same time.
A man may only move in one direction on each move. No two men may occupy the
same square and no man except the knight may jump over another man. The pawn is
the only man who may not move backwards and the pawns and the knights are the
only men who can move in the initial position.
Castling: This is a special move in which the king and a rook are move
simultaneously. The king is move two squares towards one of the rooks which is
then brought to the square over which which the king is passed. Castling is only
permitted if -
1) No men of either colour stand between the king and the rook;
2) Neither the king nor the rook have been previously moved;
3) The king is not in check before or after castling , and the intervening
square (that to which the rook is moved) is not attacked by an enemy man.
A capture is made by moving a pawn or piece on to a square occupied by an
enemy man which is at once removed from the board. Men capture in the same way
that they move except the pawn which captures one square diagonally forward. A
pawn which makes the two-square initial move may be captured by an enemy pawn
(not a piece) as if it had only moved one square provided the capture is made on
the next move. This is known as taking en passant.
Capturing is optional unless it is the only legal move available. A player
may not capture on of his own men.
Check and Checkmate
A king is attacked (i.e., in a position to be taken on the next move) is said
to be in check. The player who makes the attack usually announces
"Check." The player whose king is in check must on his next move get
his king out of check in one of the following ways:
1) Capture the attacking piece;
2) Interpose a man between the attacking piece and king; or
3) Move his king.
If he is unable to do any of these his king is checkmated and he has lost the
game. It follows that a player may not make a move that places his king in
check, nor may the kings ever stand next to each other.
If a player whose turn it is to move and whose king is not in check has no
legal move, then the game is a draw (stalemate).
Other ways of concluding the game
Checkmate is not possible with certain minimum forces (for example, king and
bishop against king) when the game is drawn. A position that is repeated three
times with the same player to move can be claimed a draw by either player. This
commonly arises from a succession of checks ("perpetual check"). A
game can also be concluded by agreement. If a player considers his position is
hopeless he can resign the game while both players can agree a draw at any time
if they wish.
Table of Values